Brazil (Portuguese: Brasil [pronounced: bra 'ziw]), officially known as the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: República Federativa do Brasil) is a federal republic in South America. It is the only Portuguese-speaking country in the Americas and the largest one in the world. With over 210 million inhabitants, Brazil is not only the largest country in both South America and Latin America, but it is also the fifth-largest country in the world by area and the sixth most populous.
The country's capital city is Brasília, and the largest city is São Paulo, with over 12 million inhabitants. The Greater Sao Paulo is the country's largest metropolitan area, with 21.3 million residents. Brazil is borded to the north and northwest by Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, Bolivia and French Guiana (a department of France), to east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the northeast by Paraguay, to the south and southeast by Uruguay and Argentina.
Before Brazil was "discovered" by Portuguese explorer Pedro Alvares Cabral in 1500, it was populated by several Indigenous tribes. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony from 1500 to 1815. In 1815, the colony became a kingdom and the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves was created. In 1822, it became an independent country and in 1889, it became a presidential republic. It's current president is Jair Bolsonaro.
The name "Brazil" is thought to be derived from "Pau-Brasil", which is Portuguese for brazilwood, a timber tree that once plentifully grew along the Brazilian coast. The reason why it's named a after a tree is because the Tupi people, alot of the time, were selling brazilwood to the Europeans who came to trade there in return for assorted European consumer goods.
11,000 years prior to the Portuguese colonization, several Native Brazilian tribes migrated to Brazil from North Asia either by land or by shallow coastal sailing. These tribes were broadly categorized into Tupi (who were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambas), Guarani, Ge and Arawak. The estimated indigenous population around the time of Portuguese arrival was 7 million. From 800 CE to 1400 CE, the marajoara culture on the island of Marajo flourished as an Amazonian ceramic center.
The Portuguese fleet commanded by navigator Pedro Alvarez Cabral landed in the land now known as Brazil on April 22, 1500 and claimed it to be part of the Kingdom of Portugal. Cabral had 13 vessels with him. On January 22, 1532, Sao Vicente was established as first settlement of Portugal in Brazil. In 1534, King John III established the Captaincies of Brazil and divided Colonial Brazil into fifteen donatory captaincies. In 1549, the failing colonies were returned to the Portuguese crown, thus forming a government.
Sugar became Brazil's most important export by the mid-16th century and slaves purchased in West Africa had become its largest import, to cope with plantations of sugarcane. A group called the bandeirantes went to explore the land for minerals and slaves. They've killed thousands of natives. The French during the 1560s and 1610s, the Dutch during the Dutch-Portuguese war tried to colonize the states of Rio, Maranhao, Bahia and Pernambuco respectively. When gold was discovered in the 1690s, it became the the new backbone of the country's economy.
In 1808, when the Iberian Peninsula was invaded and occupied, the royal family escaped from Lisbon to Rio. In 1815, the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and Algarves was establishe. On September 7, 1822, Prince Pedro of Brazil declared the country independent and on December 1, he was crowned emperor. The War of Independence of Brazil began in 1822 and ended in 1825. On March 8, 1824, the last Portuguese soldiers surrendered. In 1888, the practice of slavery was done and in 1889, after a military coup which deposed Emperor Pedro II, Brazil became a presidential republic, with Deodoro da Fonseca being the first president.
During World War I on October 26, 1917, Brazil declared war on the Central Powers. In 1930, the government continued industrial and agriculture growth and the country's vast interior.
- Amazonas: The state where the 1997 film Anaconda is set in.
- Rio Grande do Norte
- Federal District
- Mato Grosso
- Mato Grosso do Sul
- Espirito Santo
- Minas Gerais
- Rio de Janeiro: The state where actresses Jennifer O'Neill and Jossara Jinaro were born.
- São Paulo: The state where actor Tino Bianchi was born
- Rio Grande do Sul
- Santa Catarina
- Rio de Janeiro
- São Paulo
- Belo Horizonte
- Porto Alegre
Race and EthnicityEdit
According to the 2010 Census, 48% (around 91 million) of the population happen to be or identify as white. The majority of white Brazilians are descended from the Portuguese settlers who colonized their country in the late 15th century. Other ancestries include Italian, Spanish, German and other German-speaking countries (Austrian, Luxembourger, Swiss and Volga German) Slavic (Polish, Russian, Ukranian, etc.), French and Baltic (Latvian and Lithuaninan). Higher percents of whites can be found in the south and southeastern regions from Santa Catarina to Sao Paulo.
44% (around 84 million) of the population identify as brown (or pardo in Portuguese and also moreno). It is a broad category that includes mulattoes (half-White half-Afro Brazilian), cablocos (half-White half-Native Brazilian) and cafuzos (half-Afro Brazilian half-Native Brazilian). Considerable miscegenation of Europeans, Native Brazilians, and Africans has taken places in all regions of Brazil since the Portuguese settlement in 1500. Higher percents of browns/multiracial people can be found in the north regions from Amazonas to Ceara. 8% (around 14 million) of the populatio identify as black, with the majority living in the northeast and southeast regions and being descended from Africans who were brought to Brazil as slaves during the period from 1501 to 1886. Blacks and mulattoes make up 28% of the population.
2% of Brazil is Asian, with the majority being of Japanese descent and living in Sao Paulo and Parana. And 0.6% (approximately around 900 thounand) of the country is Amerindian. The National Indian Foundation estimated that the country has 67 different uncontracted tribes in 2007 and the country is believed to have the largest number lost tribes in the world. Higher percents of people with significant Amerindian blood can be found in the north and central-west regions.
Chrisitanity is the largest religion in Brazil, with Roman Catholics being the main adherents and with 65% of the population. Religion in Brazil was formed from the meeting of the Catholic Church with the religious traditions of African slaves and indigenous tribes. The famous Christ the Redeemer statue in Rio de Janeiro is one of the most recognized religious statues worldwide. The Basilica of the National Shrine of Our Lady of Aparecida, Sao Paulo is the largest Catholic Church in the world besides St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City.
The secondary adherents are Protestants. Protestantism has a community that has grown to include over 22% of the population while other Christian denominations have communities that have grown to include over 1% of the population. Evangelical and Pentecostal are the most ordinary Protestant denominations in Brazil. Places with great proportions of Irreligious inhabitants in Brazil include Salvador, Porto Velho, and Boa Vista.
2% of the population practice Spiritsm, a religion founded by French educator Allan Kardec which incorporates elements of spiritualism and Christianity.
Portuguese is both the official and national language of Brazil. 99% (around 200 million) of the population speaks the language and is the only one virtually used in television, radio, newspapers, and for business. Brazil is the only Portuguese-speaking country in the Americas. There are also a total of 210 languages in the country, 180 are indigenous. Less than 40,000 people speak indigenous languages in Brazil and the population is around 210 million.
Brazilian Portuguese is also spoken wide across the Brazilian diaspora. Today, 3.1 million people from around the world are of Brazilian descent. Mostly in phonology, it is different from European and African Portuguese. You can compare these differences to those between British and American English.
Films that take place in BrazilEdit
- At Midnight I'll Take Your Soul: Brazil's first horror film
- Awakening of the Beast
- Creature from the Black Lagoon
- Embodiment of Evil
- Evil Bong 2: King Bong
- Hallucinations of a Deranged Mind
- Sharknado 5: Global Swarming
- The Strange Hostel of Naked Pleasures
- Strange World of Coffin Joe
- This Night I'll Possess Your Corps